An allusion is an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly. The technique is used by many authors to contribute to the development of certain elements in the literary work. In the book Killer Angels by Michael Shaara, the authors alludes to many famous works and points in history to further develop the theme, but also the conflict of the story. One of the characters, Longstreet, notices the song “Bonnie Blue Flag” by Henry McCarthy is playing often around the camp, but when looking at the famous Civil War song’s lyrics, readers know that Shaara is making a claim about the conflict of the war. Many people that lived in the United States, and around the world, at the time of the war, only thought the south was fighting in favor of slavery, but that wasn’t necessarily true. Many times the southerners had to explain to others what the south actually thought the war was about, which was their rights. This was a very debated topic in the war and in the song “Bonnie Blue Flag,” a popular southern song composed in the 1860’s, the main chorus says “Hurrah! Hurrah! For Southern rights, hurrah!” (McCarthy 9,10). The fact that many of the troops in the south are singing this song shows that the south truly believes they are fighting for their rights and not slavery, which is one of the main conflicts of the war. Without Shaara alluding to this, readers wouldn’t have seen the war’s conflict as clearly as they did with the allusion.
Another example of allusion in the novel is when Fremantle, a representative for England, reflects about the war. Fremantle is observing to help decide if the Queen of England should get involved in America’s war, and he thinks to himself “Perhaps [the southerners] will rejoin the Queen and it will be as it was… If the English came to help would it not be possible? That this soil would once again be English soil?” (Shaara 159).In Fremantle’s thought, Shaara includes a subtle allusion to the Revolutionary War. When Fremantle says “it will be as it was” is relating to the time before the revolution, where America was ruled by England. If the English came from Britain, the south could have a better chance of the south winning, and Britain could, once again, dominate the United States. The allusion incorporated here further develops the conflict of the needed help from Britain, but also the way that the south viewed the north. The colonist saw Britain as tyrannical and in the Civil War, this is how the south viewed the north.The mentioning and allusion to the Revolutionary War would not have clearly brought the conflict felt by the south as easily as it was with the allusion. Both of the allusions also help add to the theme of the novel for the south. Though their motives appear to be misinterpreted and they a feeling overpowered by another group, they keep fighting and they don’t give up. This reveals to readers the persistence that the south is exemplifying throughout their actions and it may be a trait that readers should take upon themselves.
The use of allusion can be subtle and often times, has to be looked for by the readers. By looking at lyrics, not stated outright, and historic events, more can be concluded and revealed about conflict and theme, specifically how the south is feeling at a certain point during the Civil War.
Allusion is key to most stories, but especially dystopian narratives like Delirium by Lauren Oliver to show the contrast between our world and theirs. Before each chapter in Delirium there is a small passage that foreshadows the chapter. Some of these are allusions to our world like allusions/ comparisons of The Holy Bible in our world and The Book of Shhh in theirs. Some have passages like "The most dangerous sicknesses are those that make us believe we are well. ---Proverb 42, The Book of Shhh"(1). This foreshadows the chapter showing an introduction to a major part of the plot being the disease of amor deliria nervosa. It also alludes to common children sayings but changing them a tad like "Step on a crack, you'll break your mama's back./Step on a stone, you'll end up all alone./Step on a stick, you're bound the Sick./Watch where you tread, you'll bring out all the dead. ---A common children's playground chant, usually accompanied by jumping rope or clapping"(39). This is a common children saying we have in our world but changed slightly so that it fits into the story. These are allusions to show a comparison between our world and theirs.
Allusion is defined as an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference Allusion is a key effect in the novel Sleeping Freshmen Never Lie by David Lubar. This helps show and create character development throughout the novel. It all starts with Scott and his four best buds going into highschool. They find a lot of conflict between seniors, juniors, and even some sophomores. The bullying part is the main conflict they deal with. All of the crew is not very much into the school but they are into the other parts of highschool like girls and sports, but as for Scott Hudson he loves english class. This is where the allusion makes its way in when the class is determining what they should watch in class for english. Julie calls, Mr. Franka “We should watch The Princess Bride” (33). This shows that the allusion is very important to Scott because he really loves english and loves all literature and the Princess Bride is a perfect movie for english class. It is perfect because it has a lot of Archetypes within it. This helps the conflict and the theme a lot because the more of the english and literature that the class learns that Scott already knows and can make connection to what the other kids are saying and what they think about it, this will help Scott feel more comfortable in highschool and it might make him feel like he can express his feelings in front of the class without getting embarrassed and not fit in. This allusion fits in perfectly to this book and the way it is because if Scott truly loves literature then Lubar can add a very affective allusion to help develop plot and character easily in the novel. This allusion overall really helps the reader understand the character of Scott Hudson and what he is like and his love towards english throughout the novel.
In J.K. Rowling’s novel, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, the end gets considerably dark, and the horrible events show tremendous irony. The dark events begin when main character, Harry, without knowing what’s happening, is transported to a graveyard hundreds of miles away from where he was, and once he reaches the graveyard he is met with something horrible; Lord Voldemort, the dark wizard who had killed Harry’s parents and who’s powers had been destroyed when he tried to kill a baby Harry, was being brought back to a fully powerful, human form by one of his faithful servants. Voldemort had been powerless and barely alive for 13 years before this moment. Once Harry had been brought to the graveyard by a Portkey that was set up by another of Voldemort’s followers, which is a magical object that transports one that touches it anywhere it is set to go, Harry is tied “from neck to ankles to [a] headstone” in the graveyard so he can’t escape (638). Then Harry watches as the powerless Voldemort is put into a cauldron and his servant begins to make some sort of potion, shouting out things that are being added to it, starting with “‘[b]one of the father, unknowingly given, you will renew your son” and “[f]lesh -- of the servant -- w-willingly given -- you will -- revive -- your master” (641). Harry watches as dust from the grave he is tied to, which is Voldemort’s father’s grave, rises and goes into the cauldron, and he is astonished and repulsed when after that the servant helping Voldemort holds his arm over the cauldron, takes out a knife, and cuts his whole hand off into the potion. Then, the irony is finally shown when the servant says, “[b]lood of the enemy… forcibly taken… you will… resurrect your foe,” and the man goes to Harry, cuts his arm, collects a drop of his blood, and adds it to the potion (642). This is ironic on a basic level, for Voldemort’s enemy is contributing an ingredient to his resurrection, but it goes deeper than that. Harry is the very person who destroyed Voldemort’s powers; he’s the reason that Voldemort has lived as less than even a spirit for so long. And the very reason that Harry could not be killed also made Voldemort unable to touch him; Harry’s mother sacrificed her life to save him. “‘His mother died in the attempt to save him -- and unwittingly provided him with a protection [Voldemort] admit[s] [he] had not forseen,”’ also meaning that Voldemort “‘could not touch the boy”’ and that, when he attempted to use the killing curse on Harry when he was a baby, his curse was deflected by the protection his mom left in him and “‘it rebounded upon [Voldemort]”’ himself (652, 653). The protection in Harry’s blood is what brought about Voldemort’s downfall, so the fact that it is also Harry’s blood that courses through the veins of the newly revived Voldemort is extremely ironic. This also greatly affects the conflict because, whereas before when Voldemort had possessed another body and had tried to touch Harry, Voldemort’s flesh had crumbled, he “‘can touch him now”’ and is able to cause horrible pain for Harry in the scar that Voldemort left him before by doing so (653). That is because the love that protects Harry also is within Voldemort, and that also means that Voldemort has the power to kill Harry without the curse rebounding on him. That changes the whole story drastically because that was the most major obstacle for Voldemort when it came to killing Harry, and that’s important because it’s found out later in the series that Harry is the only one who can kill Voldemort. Because Voldemort is able to kill the only person who can kill him, a huge threat is posed to the whole wizarding world. Either Harry has to stay alive and kill Voldemort or Harry is killed and Voldemort can take control of the world. So, Harry being forced to give his blood to Voldemort is both highly ironic and influential to the story, meaning that nothing is the same after the day when Harry is forced to visit that graveyard.
The novels Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire by J.K. Rowling and Insurgent by Veronica Roth share a similar irony. You wrote about how “The protection in Harry’s blood is what brought about Voldemort’s downfall, so the fact that it is also Harry’s blood that courses through the veins of the newly revived Voldemort is extremely ironic,” and the concept of the good fueling the evil is also explored in Insurgent (Burkey). In the universe of the Divergent series, the society is split into five factions which value different virtues to separate jobs and roles of the society and prevent chaos. The two factions that mainly influence the irony are Amity, the peaceful, and Erudite, the intelligent. The protagonist Tris is being hunted by the Erudite and seeks asylum with the Amity, and during her time there, learns about the Amity way of life. Though they are based on kindness, there is a large amount of technology in the compound from water filtration systems to growing plants without soil to a serum used to calm people down and make them think lighter and happier. Tris later finds that “the serum that made [her] feel happier was developed by Erudite” (Roth 92). The Erudite are smart enough to develop and use tech like computers and brain-stimulating injections like the one Amity uses to change emotions. The fact that the kindest faction, who seeks nothing but peace and agreement and understanding, and the cruelest faction, who values only knowledge and power, regardless of the cost, have such a strong alliance is extremely ironic. Tris even recognizes it, but then makes another realization: that “the city would not be able to survive without Amity or without Erudite, it’s the most important faction alliance between the five,” because Amity supplies the food, and Erudite gives them the technology to farm mass amounts of quality food for the entire population (Roth 132). This brings the irony to yet another level, because not only do the two factions with the most conflicting views have the strongest alliance, but if the alliance did not exist, the other three factions would be in very bad condition. This is ironic because, once again, the “good” faction and the “evil” faction are working together-- just like how Harry Potter’s blood is now a part of Lord Voldemort, and if that connection was not made, the plot could not be moved forward.
Sincerely, Teagan Meens
Throughout the novel Sophomores And Other Oxymorons David Lubar uses the Literary term of Allusion to help describe the setting and current situation. Scott Hudson arrives to the first day of his sophomore year excited and ready to go. He has heard that the literacy teacher is very good and he loves writing more than anything. When he walks into the class he meets Lee and a group standing around. “‘ He walked heavily,” Lee said in a deep voice.
“Lee gave me a funny look, and repeated the phrase.
“What are you talking about?” I asked.
“It’s from Of Mice and Men,” she said. “Right near the opening, you did read it right?”(52). Scott’s summer reading assignment was to read this book and answer questions about it. The author alludes to this book because even though scott is very passionate about literature he does not like this book. He refused to read it over the summer because he thought that he would be able to remember most of it because he had read it a few years back. But because he hated the book so much he did not remember any of it and therefore failed the quiz on the first day of school. By Alluding to this book Lubar shows that not all literature nerds like all books, and not doing an assignment because of this belief could really hurt and impact your grade. This teaches readers to always read something even if it is not your favorite because it could help you later on in dire situations.
Archetypes are repetitive patterns or structures in literature, artwork, music, etc. In literature, common archetypes are for the characters and plot, the format of the story, and for aspects of the story, like water, the desert, numbers, and colors. In Insurgent by Veronica Roth, one of the major archetypes of the story is the archetype of color. In the Divergent universe, the city is split into five factions which each identify themselves by color of clothing. The colors of the factions- white, black, gray, red, yellow, and blue also share archetypes which the novel exploits multiple times. Abnegation, who value charity, dress in gray so that they are not distracting. They aim to blend in and not disturb the peace of the city. The color gray, as an archetype, is associated with lifelessness, boredom, decay, neutral, dullness. The Abnegation strive to be gray-- “[they] don’t want to be seen or noticed, [they] are neutral,” (31). The Abnegation are known for their unconditional selflessness, and the society sees the Abnegations as weak, even giving them the nickname “stiff”. The Amity, who value kindness, dress in red and yellow, because the colors are bright and induce happiness. Red is sometimes tied to aggression, though yellow is always looked at as cheerful, however the combination of the colors, orange, matches Amity the best. It is associated with the positive things of red and yellow, like peace and happiness, but also with warmth and hominess. This fits well with what happens in the novel, as the “Amity took [Tris and her allies] in, welcoming [them] unconditionally. . . it almost felt [to them] like home.” (73). It’s also the color of the harvest, which matches Amity perfectly, because their main contribution to the society is agriculture. The Erudite, who value knowledge and logic, wear blue, because the color has been proven to increase focus and alertness. Though the Erudite chose blue to encourage a good work ethic and attention span, the archetype also carries meaning. Blue is generally associated with order, harmony, and reliability. Though the Erudite do turn cruel and manipulative, or at least their leader does, Roth writes the faction to be the staple of the society. In the same way our world revolves around technology, the city relies on the Erudite for their technologies and automations. The Candor, who value honesty, dress in black and white, because they believe the world has no gray lines, there is only black and white. The color white symbolizes purity, rebirth, wholesomeness, and divineness. By using the color white specifically, Roth shows the readers just how strongly the truth is to them; like it might be divine. The same goes for black, which is associated with sternness and concealment, to show how they think of lies. Finally, the Dauntless, who value bravery, wear black, because the color to the symbolizes strength. In addition to sternness and concealment, black is associated with bravery, stubbornness, strength, and authority. Using the archetype of black for the Dauntless shows how the they think of themselves and how the rest of the society treats them: as brave, sometimes crazy, strong but stubborn, mysterious people. Though not every reader will know that the colors Roth choses to use for factions are, in terms of archetypes, there is a natural association society makes between colors. Beyond the factions’ colors, Roth makes another archetypal tie using colors. When Tris, Tobias, and her brother Caleb are forced to leave the Amity compound, they end up visiting the factionless. Tris notices how “they dress with mismatched clothes from all the factions. . . undefined by one color, or by one way of life” (152). By exploiting the association people use between colors and actions, Roth develops a natural and realistic sense of each of the factions, as though they could be an actual part of the future society.
Oops, posted this to the wrong question. This is a response to question one: Using your "Archetypes" handout, identify one major archetype in your novel. Explain how this archetype helps define the characters, conflict and theme of your novel.